Posts Tagged 'Bethlem Bones'

The Bedlam Bones: Excavation, History and Myth

Regular readers of this blog will be aware that we’ve long been pointing out the holes in stories claiming the skeletons unearthed at Bishopsgate as part of the Crossrail project were former patients of the Hospital. We even drew attention to the efforts of turn-of-the-twentieth-century chaplain, Edward Geoffrey O’Donoghue, to trace any references to the first Bethlem Hospital in local parish registers, which included the surprising revelation that “old Bedlam” (as he put it) “was not without its amusements, for on July 25th 1618, the burial is recorded of William Marshall, who died suddenly in the Bowling Alley in Bedlam.”1

Yet the ‘Bedlam Bones’ tag seems to have caught the attention of the media, and is now apparently well nigh unshakeable. This coming Saturday, however, visitors to the Museum will be able to hear the Bethlem Archivist explain the real history of the “New Churchyard by Bethlem”. The free talk starts at 2pm, and visitors will also be able to see a new exhibition in the space: Back From Holiday. In the last few years, many of our paintings have been out on loan around the world. This display features some of these temporary absentees, now back home in Beckenham, including work by Vaslav Nijinsky, Jonathan Martin, Richard Dadd and Louis Wain.

Other events coming up will focus on some of the works recently returned to the Museum. On 2 November, a free talk on James Tilly Matthews explores his sketch of the “Air Loom Gang” that he believed were persecuting him, while December’s Saturday talk (on 7 December) will focus on Nijinsky, whose drawing A Mask, is on display. For full details of upcoming events, visit our website: or join the mailing list.

 photo Masksmallc1919b_zpsa8fbd3a9.jpg

1 Under the Dome, vol. 3 no. 11 (30 September 1894), pp. 107-108.


Those Bedlam Bones Again 2

The early history of Bethlem featured in a well attended talk given at the Crossrail Visitor Information Centre on Wednesday evening. Project archaeologist Mike Court described some of the discoveries made at Liverpool Street, where excavations are taking place close to the original site of the hospital. Finds have included a Roman key and medieval bone skates dating from a period where the ‘Moorfields Marsh’ regularly froze over in winter.

Mike went on to describe the key find on the site: human remains removed from a burial ground adjacent to the hospital, which have received considerable press coverage in the past year (as we have already reported), some of it quite sensational in nature. Fortunately sensationalism was not the order of the day at this event, and the focus was instead on the different types of burial discovered and the discovery that local people also used the area as a dumping ground for industrial waste!

There will be two further talks at 6.30pm today, Wednesday 17 October and Wednesday 24 October. The exhibition Bison to Bedlam: Crossrail’s Archaeology Story So Far continues until 27 October.

Venue: Crossrail Visitor Information Centre
16-18 St Giles High Street
London WC2H 8LN

Exhibition open 11am – 7pm Tuesday – Thursday and 10am – 5pm Saturday

Admission free.

Those Bedlam Bones Again 1

Last year, in response to excited media reports of the discovery during Crossrail excavations of a graveyard filled, it was said, with hundreds of skeletons of patients from early modern Bethlem, we blogged to set the record straight: the churchyard was carved out of land to the west of Bethlem’s buildings in 1569 to provide additional burial space for a handful of London parishes (including St Botolph’s, Bishopsgate) which had run out of room for their dead. The graveyard, in short, was not maintained by the Hospital for its deceased patients – it was ‘overspill’ consecrated land used by the surrounding parishes – and the link between Hospital and churchyard was principally one of geographical proximity.

The details we provided, both publicly on this forum and privately in response to enquiries received, seem to have had a salutary effect. We were especially impressed with the sobriety of the article that appeared in Current Archaeology in July 2011. Yet not everyone reads Current Archaeology – alas, not everyone is familiar with this blog! – and we have since written about the pull exerted by narratives that are macabre and sensational (even if not strictly factual, or commensurate with human dignity). So we await with interest the latest iteration of the pop-up exhibition Bison to Bedlam which is on show at Crossrail’s Visitor Information Centre at 16-18 St Giles High Street, near Tottenham Court tube station in central London, throughout October 2012.

One project that no-one has yet attempted in connection with the current publicity concerning the churchyard – at least, not to our knowledge – is to consult the registers of parishes such as St Botolph’s, Bishopsgate in order to establish what proportion of burials were linked in some way to Bethlem Hospital. Mirabili dictu, we recently discovered that Bethlem’s chaplain, Geoffrey O’Donoghue, did just this in 1894 in respect of the sixty-five year period between 1558 and 1623. According to an article published in the Hospital’s magazine, Under the Dome, he found within the Bishopsgate registers seventy entries recording the burial of persons connected with the Hospital in this period – an average of just over one per year.1 By no means had all of the deceased been patients at the Hospital: two of the ten mentioned by name in the article were described as ‘keepers’. And there is no way of knowing how many of the seventy may have ended up in the ‘overspill’ churchyard next to Bethlem, except to say that none could have been in the first eleven years of the period studied by O’Donoghue, since the churchyard was only brought into use in 1569. His article tells us the number of the entries in the Bishopsgate register that were associated with Bethlem, but not the proportion this represented of the contents of the register as a whole. The likelihood is, however, that the proportion was very small, and that the line we have used more than once in private correspondence concerning the Crossrail excavation, that “the remains in that graveyard are equally likely to be those of veterans of the Spanish Armada conflict or actors on the Elizabethan stage as they are to be of Bethlem patients”, is not far off the mark. Perhaps the Crossrail exhibition might have been better named Denarius to Drake or Mammoth to Marlowe?

1 Under the Dome, vol. 3 no. 11 (30 September 1894), pp. 107-108.